Publications with links

Self-organized criticality in geophysical turbulence. Nature Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-019-39869-w, 2019. (W.D. Smyth, J.D. Nash and J.N. Moum) [Open Access pdf]

Seasonality and buoyancy suppression of turbulence in the Bay of Bengal, Geophys. Res. Lett., , 2019. (*R. Thakur, E.L. Shroyer, R. Govindarajan, J.T. Farrar, R.A. Weller and J.N. Moum)

Wind limits on rain layers and diurnal warm layers. J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2018JC01387, 2019. (E.J. Thompson, J.N. Moum, S.A. Rutledge and C.W. Fairall) []

Variations of equatorial shear, stratification, and turbulence within a tropical instability wave cycle. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans., 2019. (R. Inoue, R-C. Lien, J.N. Moum, R.C. Perez and M.C. Gregg)

Evolution of turbulence in the diurnal warm layer. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 48, 383-396, 2018. (*A.J. Moulin, J.N. Moum and E.L. Shroyer) []

Buoyant gravity currents released from tropical instability waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 48, 361-382, 2018. (S.J. Warner, R. M. Holmes, E.H. McHugh Hawkins, M. Hoecker-Martinez, A. Savage and J.N. Moum) [ ]

The role of turbulence in redistributing upper ocean heat, freshwater and momentum in response to the MJO in the equatorial Indian Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 48, 197-220, DOI:10.1175/JPO-D-17-0146.1, 2018. (**K. Pujiana, J. N. Moum, and W. D. Smyth) []

An efficient scheme for onboard reduction of moored chipod data. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 34, 2533-2546, doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-17-0118.1, 2017(J. Becherer and J.N. Moum) []

Seasonality of deep cycle turbulence in the eastern equatorial Pacific., J. Phys. Oceanogr., 47, 2189-2209, DOI: 10.1175/JPO-D-17-0008.1, 2017 (H. Pham, W.D. Smyth, S. Sarkar and J.N. Moum)   []        

Pulsating stratified turbulence in the upper equatorial oceans, J. Fluid Mech., 822, 327-341, 2017. (W.D. Smyth, H. Pham, J.N. Moum and S. Sarkar) []

Turbulent large-eddy momentum flux divergence during high wind events. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 47, 1493-1517, DOI: 10.1175/JPO-D-16-0286.1, 2017.(H.W. Wijesekera, D.W. Wang, E. Jarowsz, W.J. Teague, W.S. Pegau and J.N. Moum) []

Flow variability within the Alaska Coastal Current in winter. J. Geophys. Res., 122, doi:10.1002/2016JC012102, 2017 (E. Jarowz, D. Wang, H. Wijesekera, W.S. Pegau and J.N. Moum) l]

Ocean feedback to pulses of the Madden–Julian Oscillation in the equatorial Indian Ocean. Nature Commun. 7, 13203 doi: 10.1038/ncomms13203, 2016. (J.N. Moum. K. Pujiana, R-C. Lien and W.D. Smyth) []

Evidence for seafloor-intensified mixing by surface-generated equatorial waves. Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 1202-1210, doi:10.1002/2015GL066472, 2016. (R.M. Holmes, J.N. Moum and L.N. Thomas) []

Controls on turbulent mixing in a strongly stratified and sheared tidal river plume. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 46, 2373-2388. DOI: 10.1175/JPO-D-15-0156.1, 2016.
 (J.T. Jurisa, J.D. Nash, J.N. Moum and L.F. Kilcher) [ ]

Horizontal variability of high-frequency nonlinear internal waves in Massachusetts Bay detected by an array of seafloor pressure sensors. J. Geophys. Res., 121, 5587-5607. doi: 10.1002/2016JC011866, 2016. (J.A. Thomas, JA. Lerczak and J.N. Moum) [JGR]

Modification of upper-ocean temperature structure by subsurface mixing in the presence of strong salinity stratification. Oceanography, 29(2):62–71,, 2016 (E.L. Shroyer, D.L. Rudnick, J.T. Farrar, B. Lim, S.K. Venayagamoorthy, L.C. St. Laurent, A. Garanaik, and J.N. Moum) [Oceanography]

Monsoon mixing cycles in the Bay of Bengal: A year-long subsurface mixing record. Oceanography, 29(2):158–169,, 2016. (S.J. Warner, J. Becherer, K. Pujiana, E.L. Shroyer, M. Ravichandran, V.P. Thangaprakash and J.N. Moum [Oceanography]

Observations of currents over the deep southern Bay of Bengal with a little luck. Oceanography, 29(2):112–123,, 2016. (H.W. Wijesekera, W.J. Teague, E. Jarosz, D.W. Wang, T.G. Jensen, S.U.P. Jinadasa, H.J.S. Fernando, L. Centurioni, Z.R. Hallock, E.L. Shroyer, and J.N. Moum) [Oceanography]

Energetics of bottom Ekman layers during buoyancy shutdown. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 45, 3099-3117. doi:, 2015. (L. Umlauf, W.D. Smyth and J.N. Moum) [JPO]

Biases in Thorpe scale estimation of turbulence dissipation. Part I: Assessments from large overturns in oceanographic data. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 45, 2497-2521, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-14-0128.1, 2015. (B.D. Mater, S.K. Venayagamoorthy, L. St. Laurent and J.N. Moum) [JPO]

Ocean speed and turbulence measurements using pitot-static tubes on moorings, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 32, 1400-1413, doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-14-00158.1, 2015. (J.N. Moum) [JTech]

Distinguishing ichthyogenic turbulence from geophysical turbulence. J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1002/2014JC010659, 2015. (K. Pujiana, J.N. Moum, W.D. Smyth and S.J. Warner) [JGR]

The formation and fate of internal waves in the South China Sea. Nature, 521, 65-69, doi:10.1038/nature14399, 2015. (Experiment PIs incl. J.D. Nash, J.N. Moum) [Nature]

Energy and heat fluxes due to vertically propagating Yanai waves observed in the equatorial Indian Ocean J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1002/2014JC010152, 2015. (W.D. Smyth, T.S. Durland and J.N. Moum) [JGR]

Air-sea interactions from westerly wind bursts during the November 2011 MJO in the Indian Ocean. Bull.Am.Met.Soc., 95, 1185-1199, 2014. (J.N. Moum, S.P. de Szoeke, W.D. Smyth, J.B. Edson, H.L. DeWitt, A.J. Moulin, E.J. Thompson, C.J. Zappa, S.A. Rutledge, R.H. Johnson and C.W. Fairall) [BAMS]

Measurements of form and frictional drags over a rough topographic bank. J. Phys. Oceanogr., doi:10.1175/JPO-D-13-0230-1, 2014. (H.W. Wijesekera, E. Jarosz, W.J. Teague, W.D. Wang, D.B. Fribance, J.N. Moum and S.J. Warner) [JPO]

Stratification and mixing regimes in biological thin layers over the mid-Atlantic Bight. Limnol. Oceanogr., 59(4), 1349-1363, 2014. (E.L. Shroyer, J.D. Nash, K.J. Benoit-Bird and J.N. Moum) [L&O]

Effects of the diurnal cycle in solar radiation on the tropical Indian Ocean mixed layer variability during wintertime Madden-Julian Oscillations. J. Geophys. Res., 118, 4945–4964, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20395, 2013. (Y. Li, W. Han, T. Shinoda, C. Wang, R-C. Lien, J. N. Moum and J-W. Wang) [pdf]

The geography of semidiurnal mode-1 internal tide energy loss. Geophys. Res. Lett, 40, doi:10.1002/grl.50872, 2013. (S.M. Kelly, N.L. Jones, J.D. Nash and A.F. Waterhouse) [pdf]

Marginal instability and deep cycle mixing in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. Geophys Res. Lett., 40, 6181-6185, DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058403, 2013 (W.D. Smyth and J.N. Moum) [pdf]

Diurnal shear instability, the descent of the surface shear layer and the deep cycle of equatorial turbulence. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 43, 2432-2455, 2013 (W.D. Smyth, J.N. Moum, L. Li and S.A. Thorpe) [pdf]

Seasonal sea surface cooling in the equatorial Pacific cold tongue controlled by ocean mixing. Nature, 500, 64-67. doi:10.1038/nature12363, 2013 (J.N. Moum, A. Perlin, J.D. Nash and M.J. McPhaden) [Nature letter, News&Views]

Surface wave effects on high-frequency currents over a shelf edge bank. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 43, 1627-1647, 2013. (H.J. Wijesekera, D.W. Wang, W.J. Teague, E. Jarosz, W.E. Rogers, D.B. Fribance and J.N. Moum [pdf]

Measurement of tidal form drag using seafloor pressure sensors. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 43, 1150-1172. doi:10.1175/JPO-D-12-0163.1, 2013 (S.J. Warner, P. MacCready, J.N. Moum and J.D. Nash) [pdf]

Modulation of equatorial turbulence by a tropical instability wave. J. Geophys. Res., 117, C10009, doi:10.1029/2011JC007767, 2012. (R. Inoue, R.-C. Lien and J.N. Moum) [pdf]

The unpredictable nature of internal tides on the continental shelf. J. Phys. Oc., doi:10.1175/JPO-D-12-028.1, 2012. (J.D. Nash, S.M. Kelly, E.L. Shroyer, J.N. Moum and T.F. Duda) [pdf]

Turbulence and high-frequency variability in a deep gravity current outflow. Geophys. Res. Lett, 39, L18611, doi:10.1029/2012GL052899, 2012. (J.D. Nash, H. Peters, S.M. Kelly, J.L. Pelegri, M Emelianov & M. Gasser) [pdf]

Ocean mixing by Kelvin-Helmoltz instability. Oceanography, 25(2) 140-149, 2012. (W.D. Smyth and J.N. Moum) [pdf]

Are any coastal internal tides predictable? Oceanography, 25(2) 80-95, 2012. (J.D. Nash, E.L. Shroyer, S.M. Kelly, M.E. Inall, T.F. Duda, M.D. Levine, N.L. Jones, and R.C. Musgrave) [pdf]

The direct breaking of internal waves at steep topography. Oceanography, 25(2) 150-159, 2012. (J.M. Klymak, S. Legg, M.H. Alford, M. Buijsman, R. Pinkel, and J.D. Nash.) [pdf]

The role of turbulence stress divergence in decelerating a river plume J. Geophys. Res., 117, C05032, doi:10.1029/2011JC007398, 2012 (L.F. Kilcher, J.D. Nash & J.N.Moum) [pdf]

Comparison of Thermal Variance Dissipation Rates from Moored and Profiling Instruments at the Equator, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 29, 1347–1362, 2012. (A. Perlin and J. N. Moum) [pdf]

Trapping of gyrotactic organisms in an unstable shear layer. Cont. Shelf Res., 36, 8-18, 2012. (M.S. Hoecker-Martinez and W.D. Smyth) [pdf]

Energy flux and dissipation in Luzon Strait: Two tales of two ridges J. Phys. Oceanogr, 41, 2211-2222, 2011. (M.H. Alford, J.A. MacKinnon, J.D. Nash, H. Simmons [pdf]

On the potential for automated realtime detection of nonlinear internal waves from seafloor pressure measurements. Appl. Ocean Res., 33, 275-285.  doi:10.1016/j.apor.2011.07.007 (U. Stoeber and J.N. Moum) [pdf - author version] [science direct]

Narrowband high-frequency oscillations at the equator. Part I: Interpretation as shear instabilities. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 41, 397-411, 2011. (J.N. Moum, J.D. Nash and W.D. Smyth) [pdf]

Narrowband high-frequency oscillations at the equator. Part II: Properties of shear instabilities. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 41, 412-428, 2011. (W.D. Smyth, J.N. Moum and J.D. Nash) [pdf]

Nonlinear internal waves over New Jersey’s continental shelf. J. Geophys. Res., 116, C03022, doi:10.1029/2010JC006332, 2011. (E.L. Shroyer, J.N. Moum and J.D. Nash) [pdf]

Inertial-convective subrange estimates of thermal variance dissipation rate from moored temperature measurements. J.Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 27, 1950-1959, 2010.  (Y. Zhang and J.N. Moum) [pdf]

Observations of broadband acoustic backscattering from nonlinear internal waves: assessing the contribution from microstructure. IEEE J. Oceanic Eng., 35, 695-709, 2010. (Andone C. Lavery, Dezhang Chu, and James N. Moum) [pdf]

Internal-tide generation and destruction by shoaling internal tides. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L23611, doi:10.1029/2010GL045598, 2010 (S.M. Kelly and J.D. Nash) [pdf]

Energy transformations and dissipation of nonlinear internal waves over New Jersey’s continental shelf. Nonlinear Proc. Geophys., 17, 345-360, 2010 (E.L. Shroyer, J.N. Moum, and J.D. Nash) [pdf]

Mode 2 waves on the continental shelf: Ephemeral components of the nonlinear internal wavefield. J. Geophys. Res., 115, C07001, doi:10.1029/2009JC005605, 2010 (E.L. Shroyer, J.N. Moum, and J.D. Nash) [pdf]

Vertical heat flux and lateral mass transport in nonlinear internal waves. Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2010GL042715, 2010 (E.L. Shroyer, J.N. Moum, and J.D. Nash) [pdf]

Internal-tide energy over topography. J. Geophys. Res., 115, C06014, doi:10.1029/2009JC005618, 2010 (S.M. Kelly, J. D. Nash, and E. Kunze) [pdf]

Structure and dynamics of the Columbia River tidal plume front. J. Geophys. Res., 115, C05S90, doi:10.1029/2009JC006066, 2010 (L. Kilcher, and J. D. Nash) [pdf]

Sea surface cooling at the Equator by subsurface mixing in tropical instability waves, Nature Geoscience, 2, 761-765, 2009. (J. N. Moum, R.-C. Lien, A. Perlin, J. D. Nash, M. C. Gregg and P. J. Wiles) [pdf]

A new look at Richardson number mixing schemes for equatorial ocean modeling. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 2652-2664, 2009 (E.D. Zaron and J.N. Moum) [pdf]

Measurements of acoustic scattering from zooplankton and oceanic microstructure using a broadband echosounder, ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsp242, 2009. (Andone C. Lavery, Dezhang Chu, and James N. Moum) [pdf]

The structure and composition of a highly-stratified, tidally-pulsed river plume. J. Geophys. Res., 114, C00B12, doi:10.1029/2008JC005036, 2009 (J. D. Nash, L. Kilcher, and J. N. Moum) [pdf]

Observations of polarity reversal in shoaling nonlinear internal waves, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 691-701, 2009. (E.L. Shroyer, J.N. Moum, and J.D. Nash) [pdf]

Mixing measurements on an equatorial ocean mooring, J. Atmos. and Oceanic Tech., 26, 317-336, 2009 (J.N. Moum and J.D. Nash) [pdf]

Do observations adequately resolve the natural variability of oceanic turbulence? J. Mar. Sys., doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2009.10.1013, 2009 (J.N. Moum and T.P. Rippeth) [pdf]

Small-scale processes in the coastal ocean, Oceanography , 21(4), 22-33, 2008 (J.N. Moum, J.D. Nash and J.M. Klymak) [pdf]

Seafloor pressure measurements of nonlinear internal waves, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38(2), 481-491, doi:10.1175/2007JPO3736.1, 2008 (J.N. Moum and J.D. Nash) [pdf]

Shallow Water 2006: a joint acoustic propagation/nonlinear internal wave physics experiment, Oceanography, 20(4), 156-167, 2007(D.J. Tang, J.N. Moum, J.F. Lynch, P. Abbot, R. Chapman, P. Dahl, T. Duda, G. Gawarkiewicz, S. Glenn, J.A. Goff, H. Graber, J. Kemp, A. Maffei, J. Nash and A. Newhall) [pdf]

Dissipative losses in nonlinear internal waves propagating across the continental shelf, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37(7), 1989-1995, 2007 (J.N. Moum, D.M. Farmer, E.L. Shroyer, W.D. Smyth and L. Armi)[ pdf]

Energy transport by nonlinear internal waves, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37(7), 1968-1988, 2007 (J.N. Moum, J.M. Klymak, J.D. Nash, A. Perlin and W.D. Smyth) [pdf]

Oceanic isopycnal slope spectra: Part I: Internal waves, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37(5), 1215-1231, 2007 (J.M. Klymak and J.N. Moum) [pdf]

Oceanic isopycnal slope spectra: Part II: Turbulence, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37(5), 1232-1245, 2007 (J.M. Klymak and J.N. Moum) [pdf]

Enhanced turbulence due to the superposition of internal gravity wave shear on the coastal upwelling jet, J. Geophys. Res., 112, C06024, doi:10.1029/2006JC003831, 2007 (G. Avicola, J.N. Moum, A. Perlin and M.D. Levine) [pdf]

Organization of stratification, turbulence and veering in bottom Ekman layers. J. Geophys. Res., 112, C05S90, doi:10.1029/2004JC002641, 2007 (A. Perlin, J. N. Moum, J.M. Klymak, M.D. Levine, T. Boyd and M. Kosro) [pdf]

Oxygen production and carbon sequestration in an upwelling coastal margin, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 20, GB3001, doi:10.1029/2005GB002517, 2006 (Hales, B., L. Karp-Boss, A. Perlin, P. A. Wheeler) [pdf ]

Hotspots of deep ocean mixing on the Oregon continental slope, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L01605, doi:10.1029/2006GL028170, 2007 (Nash, J. D., M. H. Alford, E. Kunze, K. Martini, and S. Kelly) [pdf ]

Structure of the baroclinic tide generated at Kaena Ridge, Hawaii, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36(6), 1123-1135, 2006 (Nash, J.D., E. Kunze, C.M. Lee and T.B. Sanford) [pdf]

The pressure disturbance of a nonlinear internal wave train, J. Fluid Mech, 558, 153-177, 2006. (J.N. Moum and W.D. Smyth) [pdf]

An estimate of tidal energy lost to turbulence at the Hawaiian Ridge. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36, 1148-1164, 2006. (Klymak, J.M., J.N. Moum, J.D. Nash, E. Kunze, J.B. Girton, G.S. Carter, C.M. Lee, T.B. Sanford, and M.C. Gregg) [pdf]

River plumes as a source of large-amplitude internal waves in the coastal ocean, Nature, 437, 400-403, 2005 doi:10.1038/nature03936 (J.D. Nash and J.N. Moum) [pdf]

Differential diffusion in breaking Kelvin-Helmholtz billows, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35, 1004-1022, 2005. (W.D. Smyth, J.D. Nash and J.N. Moum) [pdf]

Estimating internal wave energy fluxes in the ocean, J. Atmos. and Oceanic Tech., 22(10), 1551-1570, 2005 (J.D. Nash, M.H. Alford and E. Kunze). [pdf]

Irreversible vertical nitrate fluxes due to turbulent mixing in a coastal upwelling system, J. Geophys. Res., 110, C10S11, doi:10.1029/2004JC002685, 2005 (B. Hales, J. Moum, P. Covert and A. Perlin) [pdf]

Response of the bottom boundary layer over a sloping shelf to variations in alongshore wind, J. Geophys. Res., 110, C10S09, doi:10.1029/2004JC002500, 2005 (A. Perlin, J. N. Moum and J.M. Klymak) [pdf]

A modified law-of-the-wall to describe velocity profiles in the bottom boundary layer, J. Geophys. Res., 110, C10S10, doi:10.1029/2004JC002310, 2005 (A. Perlin, J.N. Moum, J.M. Klymak, M.D. Levine, T. Boyd and P.M. Kosro) [pdf]

Internal tide reflection and turbulent mixing on the continental slope, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 34(5), 1117-1134, 2004 (J.D. Nash, E. Kunze, J. M. Toole and R. W. Schmitt) [pdf]

An examination of the radiative and dissipative properties of deep ocean internal tides, Deep Sea Research II , 51 , 3029-3042, 2004 (St. Laurent, L. C. and J. D. Nash) [pdf]

Form drag and mixing due to tidal flow past a sharp point, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 1297-1312, 2004 (K. A. Edwards, P. MacCready, J.N. Moum, G. Pawlak, J. M. Klymak and A. Perlin) [pdf]

Convectively-driven mixing in the bottom boundary layer, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 2189-2202, 2004 (J.N. Moum, A. Perlin, J.M. Klymak, M.D. Levine, T. Boyd and P.M. Kosro) [pdf]

From tides to mixing along the Hawaiian Ridge, Science, 301, 355-357, 2003 (Experiment PIs including J.N. Moum) [pdf]

Structure and generation of turbulence at interfaces strained by internal solitary waves propagating shoreward over the continental shelf, J. Phys. Oceanogr ., 33, 2093-2112, 2003 (J.N. Moum, D.M. Farmer, W.D. Smyth, L. Armi and S. Vagle) [pdf]

Internal solitary waves of elevation advancing on a sloping shelf, Geophys. Res. Lett . 30, NO. 20, 2045, doi:10.1029/2003GL017706, 2003 (J. M. Klymak and J.N. Moum) [pdf]

Observations of boundary mixing over the continental slope, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 2113-2130, 2002 (J.N. Moum, D.R. Caldwell, J.D. Nash and G.D. Gunderson) [pdf]

Microstructure observations of turbulent salinity flux and the dissipation spectrum of salinity, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 2002, 32, 2312-2333 (J.D. Nash and J.N. Moum) [pdf]

Shear instability and gravity wave saturation in an asymmetrically stratified jet, Dyn. Atmos. Ocean, 35, 265-294, 2002 (W.D. Smyth and J.N. Moum) [pdf]

Internal hydraulic flows on the continental shelf: high drag states over a small bank, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 4593-4611, 2001 (J.D. Nash and J.N. Moum) [pdf]

Evolution of the cross-shelf structure of the Oregon coastal upwelling system during COAST 2001. CoOP Newsletter, 15, 3, 2002 (Moum, J.N., A. Perlin and J.M. Klymak) [pdf]

Upper ocean mixing, Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, vol. 6, Academic Press, 3093-3100, 2001 (J.N. Moum and W.D. Smyth) [pdf]

Three-dimensional turbulence. Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, vol. 6, Academic Press, 2947-2955, 2001 (W.D. Smyth and J.N. Moum) [pdf]

The efficiency of mixing in turbulent patches: inferences from direct simulations and microstructure observations, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 1969-1992, 2001 (W.D. Smyth, J.N. Moum and D.R. Caldwell) [pdf]

Length scales of turbulence in stably stratified mixing layers, Phys. Fluids, 12, 1327-1342, 2000 (W.D. Smyth and J.N Moum). [pdf]

Anisotropy of turbulence in stably stratified mixing layers, Phys. Fluids, 12, 1343-1362, 2000 (W.D. Smyth and J.N. Moum) [pdf]

Topographically-induced drag and mixing at a small bank on the continental shelf, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 2049-2054, 2000 (J.N. Moum and J.D. Nash) [pdf]

Estimating salinity variance dissipation rate from microstructure conductivity measurements, J. Oceanic Atmos. Technol., 16, 263-274 , 1999 (J.D. Nash and J.N. Moum) [ pdf]

A thermocouple probe for high speed temperature measurements in the ocean, J. Oceanic Atmos. Technol., 16, 1474-1482, 1999 (J.D. Nash, D.R. Caldwell, M.J. Zelman and J.N. Moum) [pdf]